* A formal iteration of a long-standing policy, the Three Non-Nuclear Principles of December 1967 pledged that Japan would not manufacture, possess, or introduce to its territory nuclear weapons. Sato simultaneously announced "Four Nuclear Policies." In addition to honoring the non-nuclear principles, these committed Japan to promote nuclear disarmament, develop peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and rely on the U.S. nuclear deterrent for protection against "international nuclear threats."

** Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko rushed to Tokyo in the wake of Nixon's announcement. However, Moscow's refusal to return the "northern territories" - even as the United States prepared to return Okinawa - precluded cooperation. The impasse over the disputed islands continues to this day.

***Kissinger suggested sending Johnson to Tokyo to alert Sato about the China move one day ahead of public disclosure but Nixon vetoed the idea. Nixon and Kissinger never publicly linked the textile dispute with how they handled the China shock. However, British journalist Henry Brandon interviewed them on the subject and reported in The Retreat of American Power, a book they approved before publication:" Angry that the Japanese government, despite its promise to do so, did not place voluntary restraints on its exports, Mr. Nixon deliberately affronted Japanese Premier Sato by giving him no hint of his new policy toward China."

****Although Japanese defense spending during the 1960s and 1970s hovered around 1% of GNP, rapid economic growth led to steady increases in military expenditures. Between 1960 and 1970, annual spending tripled, rising from $508 million to $1.5 billion.

*****Tanaka conferred with Nixon in Honolulu in September 1972, discussing his impending trip to China. Tanaka also brought news of a trade deal designed to placate American critics. All Nippon Airlines intended to buy 21 L-1011 passenger aircraft from the Lockheed Corporation for about $400 million. The deal formed part of a larger kickback scheme in which Lockheed had paid Japanese politicians some $12 million in bribes. Revelation of the corruption led to Tanaka's resignation in December 1974 and conviction for bribery in 1983.