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IV. Chronology of Submarine Contact During the Cuban Missile Crisis
October 1, 1962 - November 14, 1962

Prepared by Jeremy Robinson-Leon and William Burr

Note: This chronology is a work-in-progress; the Archive welcomes any comments or corrections.

October 1, 1962: Four attack submarines-- B-4, B-36, B-59, and B-130--of the Soviet Sixty-Ninth Submarine Brigade depart from Sayda Bay, near Murmank, heading for Mariel Bay, Cuba. The submarines are of the "Foxtrot" (F-class) category, as designated by NATO. Armed with nuclear-tipped torpedoes and supplied with tropical clothing, the submarines and their crews have orders to sail covertly to Cuba and establish a base at Mariel. (Dubviko, p. 3; Huchthausen, p. 46-65)

Saturday, October 13, 1962: A Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) tanker Yerkon sights a surfaced submarine 130 miles north of Caracas, Venezuela (Barlow, p. 11)

Saturday, October 13, 1962: With more Soviet submarine activity in the Atlantic, the Navy begins to ready its ASW forces. (Bouchard, p. 117)

Monday, October 15, 1962: The Soviet submarines receive a change of orders: instead of heading toward Cuba, they are to "deploy in a barrier due north of the entrance to the Turks Island Passage and take up combat positions in the Sargasso Sea." (Huchthause, p. 80)

Tuesday, October 16, 1962: Robert Kennedy warns that it might be necessary to sink Soviet ships and submarines to sustain the Cuban blockade: "Then we're going to have to sink Russian ships. Then we're going to have to sink Russian submarines." (Zelikow/May: v. II, p. 450; Bouchard, p. 118)

Wednesday, October 18, 1962: In the western Atlantic, the Navy sights the Terek, a Soviet oiler that is likely to play a role replenishing Soviet submarines. (Barlow, p. 11)

Saturday, October 20, 1962: The CIA cautions that Soviet submarines could be used to transport nuclear warheads into Cuba. (Bouchard, p. 118)

Monday, October 22, 1962 -- Afternoon: CIA Director John McCone informs President Kennedy that four Soviet submarines are positioned to reach Cuba in a week. (Zelikow/May: v. III, p. xxxvi, 41)

Monday, October 22, 1962: Chief of Naval Operations Admiral George Anderson warns Fleet Commanders of possible submarine attacks against blockade forces: "I cannot emphasize too strongly how smart we must be to keep our heavy ships, particularly carriers, from being hit by surprise attack [sic] from Soviet Submarines. Use all available intelligence, deceptive tactics, and evasion during forthcoming days. Good luck." (CNO History II, p. 2)

Monday, October 22, 1962: A P2V photographs a Soviet "Z" class submarine refueling at the Terek in the mid-Atlantic. The submarine later returns to the Soviet Union. (CNO History II, p. 12; Bouchard, p. 117; Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic to 271700Z)

Monday, October 22, 1962 -- 7:00 p.m.: In a televised address to the nation, President Kennedy reveals the presence of Soviet missiles on Cuba, announces plans for a quarantine of shipping of offensive military cargoes to Cuba, and calls upon Chairman Nikita Khrushchev to "halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless, and provocative threat to world peace."

Tuesday, October 23, 1962: Anderson alerts Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara of possible danger from Soviet submarines when U.S. ships intercept Soviet ships. Anderson notes that a Hunter/Killer group would carry out the interception operation. In search of a means to signal Soviet submarines to surface, VADM Griffin tells McNamara that practice depth charges would be the most effective means of signaling the submarines. McNamara intends to inform the Soviet government of the signaling technique. The "Submarine Surfacing and Identification Procedures" were transmitted to the U.S. Naval fleet. (CNO History II, p. 4-5; Bouchard, p. 120)

Tuesday, October 23, 1962: Robert Kennedy reports that "the President ordered the Navy to give highest priority to tracking the submarines and to put into effect the greatest possible safety measures to protect our own aircraft carriers and other vessels" following an intelligence briefing. (Bouchard, p. 20)

Tuesday, October 23, 1962-Evening: Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Alexis Johnson orders the delivery of "Submarine Surfacing and Identification Procedures" to the Soviet Government. (Zelikow/May: v. III, p. xxxiv, 192)

Wednesday, October 24 -- 10:00 a.m.: During a meeting of the National Security Council Executive Committee (Excom) McNamara reports that there is a Soviet submarine close to ships that are approaching the blockade line; that presents a "very dangerous situation" for U.S. destroyers. After McNamara and Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Taylor discuss submarine signaling arrangements, including the use of practice depth charges, Kennedy asks what if a submarine refuses to surface: "we don't want to have the first thing we attack as a Russian submarine." McNamara points to the danger of deferring an attack on the submarine and reviews plans to "put pressure on the submarine, move it out of that area by pressure, by the pressure of potential destruction." (Zellikow/May, pp. 190-194)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962: Following CNO orders, the Commander Anti-Submarine Warfare Forces Atlantic establishes the "Argentia Sub-Air Barrier" off Newfoundland to hunt Soviet submarines as far forward as possible. (Barlow, p. 11; Bouchard, p. 117)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962: With at least three submarines have been sighted in the north Atlantic, ASW patrols are stepped up so that the submarines do not pose a threat to the quarantine line. (Barlow, p. 11)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962--Morning: Premier Khrushchev cautions American Businessman William Knox that Soviet submarines will attack any American ship that stops a Soviet ship. (Bouchard, p. 119; Chang, p. 64)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962-0945Z: CTF 44.3 makes a radar contact 110 miles east of Grand Bahama Island. VP aircraft find nothing. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic to 271700Z)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962-1000 a.m. (EST): The U.S. naval quarantine of Cuba is officially established. (Chang, p. 65)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962-1000 a.m.: McNamara informs President Kennedy that a Soviet submarine is close to two Soviet ships that the U.S. Navy intends to intercept. He stresses the danger of the situation, but assures Kennedy that the Navy is prepared. (Zelikow/May: v. III, p.191)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962-1140Z (Greenwich Mean Time): Anderson learns that the Cambria witnessed a disappearing radar contact, indicating the possibility that a Soviet submarine is following the ship. Upon receipt of the information, Anderson leaves a Joint Chiefs of Staff meeting for his office. (CNO History II, p. 8)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962-1500Z: A P5M detects a submarine snorkel south of Bermuda and later identifies it as Soviet "F" class submarine; it is cataloged as submarine contact C-18 (Side number 945). (Bouchard, p. 118; Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic to 271700Z, 10/27/62)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962-1800Z: A U.S. Navy ship sights a submarine periscope 300 miles north of the Azores. Later, A VP aircraft spots a submarine sail. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic: to 271700Z)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962-2119Z: Two crew members of an aerial patrol visually spot the suspected snorkel or periscope of Soviet "F" class submarine C-18 (Side number 945) at 25-20N 63-25W. (Naval Message: P 250533Z)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962: Assistant Secretary of Defense Arthur Sylvester asserts that U.S. forces will board submarines that have been forced to surface. He also states that action will be taken against submarines that do not surface after a signal has been given. (Bouchard, p. 119)

Wednesday, October 24, 1962: The U.S. Government publicly releases the "Submarine Surfacing and Identification Procedures" in a Notice to Mariners. (Bouchard, p. 20)

Thursday, October 25, 1962: Soviet submarines receive information from headquarters on the U.S. "Submarine Surfacing and Identification Procedures." (Huchthausen, p. 169)

Thursday, October 25, 1962-1642Z: A Coast Guard R5D sights a submarine snorkel 60 miles south of Cape Hatteras. SOSUS makes a reliable contact in the area nineteen hours later. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic: to 271700Z)

Thursday, October 25, 1962-2100Q (Eastern Daylight time plus four hours): Several submarine sightings are reported throughout the day. After the actual number of submarines is questioned, a P5M report confirms that a submarine sighted on the surface northeast of the blockade line is in fact a second "F" class SS. One of the spotted submarines, Soviet submarine b-59, later cataloged as C-19, is detected at 1811 east of Bermuda. (CNO History II, p. 11; Bouchard, p. 118)

Thursday, October 25, 1962-2311Z: A P5M sights a Soviet "F" class submarine on the surface 350 miles south-southwest of Bermuda. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic: to 271700Z)

Friday, October 26, 1962: The U.S. Navy identifies three Soviet "F" class submarines that had surfaced in the quarantine area. At 0825Q, the Navy spots the first of the two submarines contacted on October 25 northeast of the quarantine line. Anderson approximates that the submarines would have had to depart from the Soviet Union the first week in October. (CNO History II, p. 12)

Friday, October 26, 1962: The Randolph ASW Group and eight destroyers join quarantine patrol forces to pursue one submarine contact. The Essex group and P2V's from Bermuda observe two other submarine contacts. (CNO History II, p. 13)

Friday, October 26, 1962-0045Z: An APD makes a sonar contact 19 miles north of Bermuda. VP aircraft investigate the contact. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic: to 271700Z)

Friday, October 26, 1962-0225Z: After the SOSUS station on Turks Island makes a contact, a VP aircraft tracks it sporadically for eleven hours. Sighted 120 miles east of Grand Caicos Island, the submarine (C-20/26) is identified as a Soviet "F" class. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic to 271700Z)

Friday, October 26, 1962-1400Z: Soviet "F" class submarine C-18 (Side number 945) is spotted on the surface with a bare steerageway. It submerges shortly after. (Naval Message: O 261412Z)

Friday, October 26, 1962-1705Q: CTF 135 makes a submarine contact west of Haiti and north of Jamaica channel. The U.S. Navy increases surveillance of this area. (CNO History II, p. 13)

Friday, October 26, 1962-1840Q: A P2V sights a submarine northeast of the Dominican Republic and identifies it as a Soviet "F" class leading the Navy to increase surveillance of this area. One of the "F" class submarines contacted on October 26 is C-20/C-26 (Side number 911), detected at 0648 east of Bermuda; one is C-21, detected at 1705 east of Cuba; and one is C-23, detected at 1508 south of Cuba. (CNO History II, p. 13; Bouchard,

Friday, October 26, 1962--1951Z: "Woodpecker 5" (patrol aircraft?) reports a submarine at 26-34N 65-47W and is maintaining a MAD contact. Task Group 81.5 (Bermuda ASW Task Group) suspects this is C-19 (Navy Message 261951Z, 10/26/62)

Friday, October 26, 1962-2045Z: A P2V spots and photographs a snorkeling Soviet "F" class submarine in vicinity of Guantanamo Bay before it submerges six minutes later. It is pursued with Julie sonobouys and magnetic anomaly detection (MAD). Contact 21A was later characterized as a "possible" sighting. (Navy Message: Z0270945Z; Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic to 271700Z; Special Report of the CNO Submarine Contact Evaluation Board, 11/5/62)

Friday, October 26, 1962 - Mid-evening: The U.S.S. Cony, part of the Randolph task group, investigates a sonar contact (possibly C-19) (Cony Deck Log Book, 10/26/62)

Friday, October 26, 1962--2316Z: CINCLANT reports that nine submarine contacts remain open since 22 October. (Navy Message 262316Z)

Saturday, October 27, 1962: Seventeen ASW patrol planes and ten submarines establish the "Argentia Sub-Air Barrier" to patrol waters near Newfoundland. Canadian forces participate in the operation. (Bouchard, p. 117; Bouchard, p. 11)

Saturday, October 27, 1962-0631Z: In the northern portion of the Windward Passage, a patrol aircraft tracks a disappearing radar contact which is then pursued by destroyers. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic to 271700Z)

Saturday, October 27, 1962--Mid-day: The U.S.S. Cony, Beale, and Murray investigate possible submarine contact C-19. (Cony Deck Log Book, 10/27/62)

Saturday, October 27, 1962--315Z: A P5M reports a disappearing radar contact and a visual swirl at 29-07N 63-59W. LOFAR and JEZEBEL sonobouys hold contact intermittently. The P5M pursues the contact. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic 271700Z to 311700Z)

Saturday, October 27, 1962--1659 (local time): The Beale attempts to signal a Soviet submarine contact C-19 (B-59, but with number scratched off conning tower), using practice depth charges and sonar. The contact gives no response. (Deck Log Book of the U.S.S. Beale; Saturday, 10/27/62)

Saturday, October 25, 1962--1729 (local time): The Cony also challenges the submarine contact (B-59/C-19) by dropping five hand grenades. Although aware of the U.S. notification that practice-depth charges would be used, the initial impression of the Soviet submariners was that they were under attack. (Deck Log Book of Cony, 10/27/62; Huchthause, p. 169)

Saturday, October 27, 1962--1910Z: A VPA/C photographs Soviet "F" class submarine C-23. The Essex task group conducts surveillance in the area of 21-24N 71-27W. (Summary Soviet Submarine Activity in the Western Atlantic to 051700Z)

Saturday, October 27, 1962 2016Z: CINCLANT reports that information "to date indicates four positive conventionally powered ong range submarines (3 Foxtrot and one Zulu) in Western Atlantic." No contact evidence indicates the presence of nuclear powered or missile-configured submarines. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic to 271700Z)

Saturday, October 27, 1962-2016Z: The Essex task group holds continuous contact with Soviet submarine B-130 (C-18). It signals the Soviet "F" class submarine, spotted south-southwest of Bermuda, to surface and then escorts it heading east for 48 hours. 945's diesel engines had broken down "which decamouflaged it and revealed the presence of other submarines ... To our great regret, we only learned about the accident on B-130 submarine after our return to the Northern Fleet." (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic: 271700Z to 311700Z; Dubivko, p. 7)

Saturday, October 27, 1962-2050-2052 (local time): With its batteries running low, submarine B-59/C-19 is forced to surface and heads east. Although surrounded by U.S. ships, submarine captain Vitali Savitsky realizes that they are not in a "state of war; one of the destroyers has a lively band playing jazz. The Cony communicates with it via flashing lights; Savitsky identifies the submarine as "Ship X" ("Korablx") and declines assistance. B-59 identifies itself to other nearby ships as "Prinavlyet" (by the U.S.S. Murray), and "Prosnablavst" (by the Bache and the Barry). Aircraft illuminate and photograph it. (Deck Log Books of the U.S.S. Beale,Cony, and Murray; 10/27/62; Huchthausen, pp. 169-170, 172)

Saturday, October 27, 1962-2200 (local time): The Beale moves to within 500 yards of B-59 and uses a 24-inch search light, supplemented by aircraft searchlights, to illuminate and photograph it. (Deck Log Book of the U.S.S. Beale; 10/27/62)

Sunday, October 28, 1962-- Early morning: The Beale, Cony, Lowry, and Murray circle around Soviet submarine "Korablx" (B-59). (Deck Log Book of the Cony, 10/28/62)

Sunday October 28, 1962--0700Z: According to COMASWFORLANT, C-19 is "raising and lowering masts and snorkel possibly indicating hydraulic difficulties and/or repairs." (Navy Message 292155Z, 10/29/62)

Sunday, October 28, 1962 --Mid-Day: Joining the Randolph group (CTG 83-2), the U.S.S. Bache takes position 3000 yards ahead of submarine C-19 (identified as the "Prosnablavst"). (Deck Log of the Bache, 10/28/62)

Sunday, October 28, 1962--Mid--Day: The Barbados SOSUS station and a P2V make and hold a contact at 13-27N 58-15w until October 29. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic: 271700Z to 311700Z)

Sunday, October 28, 1962: According to an ASW summary, the Navy makes two positive and one highly likely "F" class submarine contacts 300 miles south of Bermuda, as well as two positive contacts along the Windward Island chain and two possible contacts in the Windward Passage. Finally, there is one positive "Z" class submarine and one possible contact north of the Azores. (CNO History III, p. 4)

Monday, October 29, 1962 --730Z: The U.S.S. Barry relieves the Bache in surveilliance of Soviet submarine B-59 (C-19) (also identified as "Prosnablavst"). (Deck Log of the Barry, 10/29/72)

Monday, October 29, 1962--1840 (local time): The Barry witnesses Soviet submarine B-59 (C-19) submerge "without warning." (Deck Log of the Barry, 10/29/72)

Monday, October 29, 1962-2310Z: The Essex task group sights Soviet "F" class submarine B-130 (C-18) on the surface at 24-08N 61-20W. (Navy Message 0300054Z)

Monday, October 29, 1962 - 2311Z: C-18 submerges. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic: 271700Z to 311700Z)

Monday, October 29, 1962-2311Z: Jezebel sonobouys and radar track Soviet "F" class submarine B-130 (C-19) intermittently after it submerges. (Summary Soviet Submarine Activity in the Western Atlantic to 051700Z)

Monday, October 29, 1962-2345Z: The last contact with Soviet "F" class submarine B-130 (C-18), as of 0200Z on October 30, is reported at 27-46N 59-47W. (Naval Message: O 300237Z)

Tuesday, October 30, 1962-0015 (local time)
: The Blandy spots a Soviet submarine on the surface and pursues it after it submerges at 0128. Blandy identifies it as Soviet "F" class C-18 (Side number 945) at 1701. (Deck Log Book of the U.S.S. Bland, Tuesday, 30 October 1962)

Tuesday, October 30, 1962 --0206Z: COMASWFORLANT reports that the Barry lost contact with C-19 after it "went deep." (NAVY Message 300206Z, 10/30/62)

Tuesday, October 30, 1962-0022Z: The Cecil makes radar and sonar contact at 23-25N 65-48W and holds contact with the assistance of VP. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic: 271700Z to 311700Z)

Tuesday, October 30, 1962-0145Z: Photographs are taken of Soviet "F" class submarine C-18 (Side number 945) on the surface at 24-55N 1-00W. A patrol aircraft maintains contact with the submarine. (Naval Message: O 300237Z)

Tuesday, October 30, 1962-0918R: Good submarine photographs are sent to the JCS conference room. (CNO History III, p. 6)

Tuesday, October 30, 1962-2103Z: Soviet "F" class B-130 (C-18), running low on oxygen and needing to recharge batteries, resurfaces. The Keppler escorts the submarine at 7 knots on course 060. C-18's destination appears to be the Soviet auxiliary, the Terek. The Keppler contacts C-18, but it declines assistance. (Summary Soviet Activity in the Western Atlantic: to 051700Z; Naval Message: O 310034Z; Huchthausen, pp. 201-213)

Tuesday, October 30, 1962-2252Z: Patrol aircraft flying south of Guantanamo Bay see a "large swirl and black smoke." Air and surface units using MAD and Julie sonobouys pursue C-21. (Summary Soviet Activity in the Western Atlantic 271007 to 3117007)

Tuesday, October 30, 1962: The Cecil attempts to contact C-26 (B-36). (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic: 271700Z to 311700Z; Naval Message: O 311615Z)

Tuesday, October 30, 1962-2320Z: A U.S. aircraft spots a submarine with full sail visible at 15-48N, 77-41W. (Naval Message: O 310225Z)

Wednesday, October 31, 1962-Early Morning: After thirty-five hours of tracking, the C.P. Cecil, supported by ASW aircraft, surfaces "F" class submarine B-36 (C-20/C-26) in the vicinity of 23-40N, 65-00W. Cecil follows the submarine on the surface until Friday, November 2. CINCLANTFLT sends a congratulatory message to the Cecil: "Your persistent and expert holding of contact until exhaustion with Soviet "F" class 011 has been followed with pride and admiration. Well done." From the Russian perspective: "Maneuvering at the depth of 50 to 70 meters, and having discharged our accumulator completely, and not observing any aggressive actions on the part of the surface ships...., I made a decision to come to the surface to charge the batteries." Helicopters hovered nearby dropping "explosives" (PDCs) and the Cecil transmitted a Russian text "Do you need help?" to which B-36 responded: "We do not need any help. Asking you not to interfere with my actions." (Deck Log Book of the U.S.S. Cecil; Wednesday, 31 October 1962; Friday, 2 November 1962; Summary Soviet Submarine Activity in the Western Atlantic: to 051700Z; Naval Message: P 311328Z; CNO History IV, p. 3; Dubivko, p. 9)

Wednesday, October 31, 1962-1000Z: Soviet "F" class submarine B-130 (C-18) continues to operate on the surface. (Naval Message: O 311227Z)

Wednesday, October 31, 1962-1055Z: A VP5 Aircraft reports contact with Soviet "F" class C-20/C-26 (B-36) on the surface. The Cecil and the VP5 aircraft photograph the submarine. The submarine does not respond to communication attempts. (Summary of Soviet Submarine Activity in Western Atlantic 271700Z to 311700Z; Naval Message O311615Z)

Wednesday, October 31, 1962: Four Russian "F" class submarines operating east of the Bahamas contribute to the eleven total submarines identified outside of Soviet waters. All of the submarines have been spotted on the surface, and two U.S. destroyers escort one submarine on the surface for 45 hours. (CNO History IV, p. 1)

Thursday, November 1, 1962-0119Z: A high altitude Aircraft reports a possible contact with Soviet submarine C-27 in Bahia de Cardenas in Cuban territorial waters. (Summary Soviet Submarine Activity in the Western Atlantic; to 051700Z)

Thursday, November 1, 1962: The Submarine Contact Evaluation Board estimates that there have been at least four and as many seven Soviet submarines in the southwestern Atlantic. Although there are photographs of five "F" class submarines, the board assumes that two of them are the same submarine. Additional analysis is necessary to positively identify a contact made south of Jamaica as a Soviet submarine. The Board believes that the four "F" class submarines departed for Cuban waters from Northern Fleet waters at a speed of 7 knots between September 26 and October 1. The contact south of Jamaica either advanced at a greater speed or departed a week earlier. (CNO History IV, p. 2)

Thursday, November 1, 1962 - Afternoon: U.S. ships and patrol aircraft have intermittent sonar, MAD, and Julie contacts throughout afternoon with possible periscope sighting. (Navy message 0103557Z)

Friday, November 2, 1962-Early Morning: The Keppler begins tracking Soviet submarine C-18 (Side number 945). (Deck Log Book of the U.S.S. Keppler; Friday, 2 November 1962)

Friday, November 2, 1962-1952Z: Soviet "F" class submarine C-20/C-26 (Side number 011/911) submerges at 23-49N 59-56W. The contact is lost after it moves to deep water. (Summary Soviet Submarine Activity in the Western Atlantic: to 051700Z)

Saturday, November 3, 1962-1404Z: The last contact with Soviet "F" class submarine C-23 is reported. (Summary Soviet Submarine Activity in the Western Atlantic to 051700Z)

Saturday, November 3, 1962: CNO Anderson is concerned by the absence of Soviet submarines from the list of "offensive" weapons to be removed from Cuba. (CNO History IV, p. 3)

Saturday, November 4, 1962-1508Z: Contacts with C-19 and C-21 are reported. (Summary Soviet Submarine Activity in the Western Atlantic to 051700Z)

Monday, November 6, 1962---1235Z: Pollysboy 12 has a "lofar" contact evaluated as "XNAS nuclear submarine". It is tracked with Julie and MAD until contact is lost. (Navy Message 062257Z Nov 62)

Thursday, November 8, 1962---0425Z: The last contact with Soviet "F" class submarine C-23 is reported. MAD and Julie verify this "sinker." (Navy Message 081310Z Nov 62)

Thursday, November 8, 1962: The Soviet tug Pamir tows B-130 back to the Soviet Union. (Huchthausen, pp. 242-243)

Friday, November 10, 1962---0728Z - 0850Z: CTG 81.7 holds lofar contact with C-21 submarine. (Navy Message 102101Z Nov 62)

Monday, November 12, 1962: One positive submarine contact is pursued. All other submarine contacts are "cold" for more than 72 hours. The Argentia Barrier is removed during the day. (CNO History IV, p. 13)

Wednesday, November 14, 1962-Morning: Only two possible submarine contacts are obtained. There is no further submarine activity. (CNO History V, p. 1)

Tuesday, November 14, 1962---0101Z: C-21 goes cold after possibly escaping under a Liberian tanker "Aragon" (destination: Monrovia). (Navy Message 140101Z Nov 62)


Key to Sources

Barlow = Jeffrey G. Barlow, "Some Aspects of the U.S. Navy's Participation in the Cuban Missile Crisis," in A New Look at the Cuban Missile Crisis, Colloquium on Contemporary History, June 18, 1992, No. 7, Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy.

Bouchard = Joseph F. Bouchard, Command in Crisis: Four Case Studies (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991)

Chang = Laurence Chang, ed., The Cuban Missile Crisis (Washington, D.C., National Security Archive, 1992)

CNO History = Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, "The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962", 1963

Dubivko = Aleksei F. Dubivko, "In the Depths of the Sargasso Sea," in On the Edge of the Nuclear Precipice (Moscow: Gregory Page, 1998)

Huchthausen = Huchthausen, Peter. October Fury (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002)

Zelikow/May = Philip Zelikow and Ernest R. May, editors. The Presidential Recordings John F. Kennedy, The Great Crises, Vol. III (New York, W.W. Norton, 2001)

Cables from Cuba History File/U.S. Navy Operational Archives; Deck Logs from Record Group 24, U.S. National Archives.

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